Voicy Journal

Voicy News Brief with articles from The New York Times ニュース原稿 10/24-10/30

Voicy News Brief with articles from The New York Times ニュース原稿 10/24-10/30

Voicy初の公式英語ニュースチャンネル「Voicy News Brief with articles from New York Times」。チャンネルでは、バイリンガルパーソナリティがThe New York Timesの記事を英語で読み、記事の中に出てくる単語を日本語で解説しています。

Voicy Journalでは、毎週金曜日にその週に読んだ記事を、まとめて紹介します!1週間の終わりに、その週の放送をもう1度聞いて復習するのも良いかもしれません。VoicyのPCページやアプリでは、再生速度も変えられるので、自分の理解度に応じて、調整してみましょう。

10/24(土)の放送

In Calmer Debate, Biden and Trump Differ Sharply on Virus, Immigration and Climate

著者:Alexander Burns and Jonathan Martin
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

President Donald Trump and Joe Biden delivered starkly divergent closing arguments to the country in the final presidential debate Thursday, offering opposite prognoses for the coronavirus pandemic and airing irreconcilable differences on subjects from rescuing the economy and bolstering the health care system to fighting climate change and reshaping the immigration system.

The debate was, on the whole, a more restrained affair than the first encounter between the two candidates last month, when Trump harangued Biden for most of an hour and a half and effectively short-circuited any policy debate. But if the tenor of Thursday’s forum was more sedate, the conflict in matters of substance and vision could not have been more dramatic.

From the opening minutes, the two candidates took opposing stances on the pandemic, with Trump promising, in defiance of evidence, that the disease was “going away” while Biden called for much more aggressive federal action in a “dark winter” ahead.

Trump, who badgered Biden with increasing aggression over the course of the debate, appeared determined to cast his opponent as a career politician who was, as he jabbed toward the end of the debate, “all talk and no action.” And the president used the event as his most prominent platform yet for airing unsubstantiated or baseless attacks about the finances of Biden and members of his family.

Trump, however, did little to lay out an affirmative case for his own reelection, or to explain in clear terms what he would hope to do with another four years in the White House. He frequently misrepresented the facts of his own record, and Biden’s. And on his most important political vulnerability — his mismanagement of the pandemic — Trump hewed unswervingly to a message that happy days are nearly here again, even as polls show that a majority of voters believe the worst of the coronavirus crisis is still ahead.

Biden, for his part, stuck to the core of the argument that has propelled his campaign from the start, denouncing Trump as a divisive and unethical leader who had botched the federal response to a devastating public-health crisis. Though Trump pushed him onto the defensive repeatedly, the former vice president also laid out a fuller version of his own policy agenda than he managed in the first debate, calling for large-scale economic stimulus spending, new aid to states battling the pandemic and a muscular expansion of health care and worker benefits nationwide.

starkly  全く、完全に
divergent 不一致の、相違する
prognoses (複)〔情報や経験に基づく〕予想、予測
-prognosis (単)
irreconcilable  一致しない、和解できない
restrained 抑制した
harangue  長々と熱弁を振るう、仰々しく説教をする
short-circuited  短絡した、ショートした
sedate 落ち着いた、穏やかな
in defiance of  ~を無視して、〜に逆らって
badger (人)にしつこく言う、(人)をしつこく苦しめる
unsubstantiated 根拠のない
affirmative 断定的な、肯定的な
vulnerability  傷つきやすいこと、弱み
hew 従う、順守する
unswervingly  道を外れずに、確固として
denounce (公然と) 非難する、責める
botch しくじる、台無しにする

10/25(日)の放送

EU Says Veggie Burgers Can Keep Their Name

著者:Isabella Kwai
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

LONDON — When is a burger not a burger? When it contains no meat. At least according to a divisive proposal that was in front of the European Parliament this week, part of a set of measures that would have banned the use of terms like “steak,” “sausage,” “escallop” or “burger” on labels for plant-based alternative products.

But after a decisive vote against the measure Friday, it seems veggie burgers will still be on the menu.

“Reason prevailed, and climate sinners lost,” Nikolaj Villumsen, a member of the European Parliament from Denmark posted on Twitter. “It’s worth celebrating with a veggie burger.”

A proposal to expand a ban on descriptions such as “yogurt-style” or “cream imitation” for nondairy replacements did pass, extending previous limitations on the use of words like “milk” and “butter” on nondairy alternatives.

The proposed changes — a small part of a package of agricultural measures — received more attention than perhaps desired either by their proponents among meat and livestock groups, who said they would prefer to focus on helping farmers work sustainably, or the environmentalists and food manufacturers opposing it, for whom it is a distraction from climate-change policy.

Jasmijn de Boo, vice president of ProVeg International, a group aimed at reducing meat consumption, said that the proposal was not in the interest of consumers or manufacturers, and that shoppers were not confused by the labels currently on store shelves.

“Why change something to a ‘veggie disc’ or ‘tube’ instead of a sausage?” she said. “It’s ridiculous.”

Those in favor of the change said that labeling plant-based products with meat terms were misleading and could open the door for other confusing labels.

“We simply call for the work of millions of European farmers and livestock sector workers to be acknowledged and respected,” Jean-Pierre Fleury, chairman of Copa-Cogeca, Europe’s largest farming lobby group, said in a statement this month. He described the use of meatlike names for plant-based products as “cultural hijacking.”

“Consumers are in no way confused by a soy steak or chickpea-based sausage, so long as it is clearly labeled as vegetarian or vegan,” she said in a statement after the vote. “Terms such as ‘burger’ or ‘steak’ on plant-based items simply make it much easier for consumers to know how to integrate these products within a meal.”

Veggie 野菜(Vegetables)
Divisive 不和を起こさせる
Escallop 骨なし肉をハンマーで叩いた料理
Decisive 決定力のある
Nondairy 乳成分を含まない
Proponents 提議者
Livestock 家畜
Sustainably 持続可能に
Misleading 誤解させる
Lobby ロビー活動
Meatlike 肉っぽい
Chickpea ヒヨコマメ
Vegan ビーガン、菜食主義者

10/26(月)の放送

Wealthy Millennial Women Tend to Defer to Husbands on Investing

著者:Jenny Gross
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

When Rep. Katie Porter ended her troubled marriage, leaving was tough, but one thing made it easier: For years, she had handled the family’s investments and savings plans, and she was confident that she and her children would be OK.

“It was really important to me to know that I would be able to feed and house and care for my children that next month, and the month after that,” Porter, D-Calif., said of leaving her husband, who she said had physically abused her.

Not enough women, she said, see competency in personal finance as key to freedom and security.

A study published in June by the Swiss banking group UBS underscored that point. It found that even the most educated and high-achieving millennial women were not as involved as their husbands in long-term financial decision making.

In fact, millennial women — part of a generation thought to have pushed for open-mindedness about gender roles — exhibited less financial independence than boomer women did. Among millennial women living with male partners, 54% said they deferred to their partners for long-term financial planning rather than sharing that responsibility or taking the lead themselves, compared with 39% of boomer women, according to the study, which surveyed 1,320 women with at least $250,000 in investable assets.

The primary reason those women deferred was a belief that their husbands knew more, the study found.

The gender gap in financial autonomy is especially critical now, with women at particular risk of getting sidelined during the coronavirus pandemic. Of the 1.1 million people 20 and older who left the workforce in August and September, nearly 80% were women, according to an analysis by the National Women’s Law Center.

A study published last month by consulting firm McKinsey & Co. found that a third of mothers had considered leaving the workforce or downshifting their careers during the pandemic, with a majority of those citing child care challenges as a primary reason.

The UBS study also found that fewer millennial women than boomer women saw financial participation as necessary for equality, with 76% of millennials (ages 24 to 39) saying it was essential, compared with 89% of boomers (ages 56 to 74).

defer to ~に譲る、任せる
competency 適格性、能力
underscore 強調する (復習10/3)
high-achieving 高い成果をげている、優秀な
take the lead 先導する、率先する (= take the initiative)
assets (個人や会社の)資産
autonomy 自治、自立
get sidelined 追いやられる
downshift 速度を落とす、緩める
cite 言及する、~を(理由として)挙げる

10/27(火)の放送

Pope Francis Appoints First African American Cardinal

著者:Elizabeth Dias and Jason Horowitz
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

WASHINGTON — Pope Francis on Sunday named Wilton Gregory, the archbishop of Washington, a cardinal, elevating the first African American to the Catholic church’s highest governing body, a groundbreaking act in a year when demands for racial justice have consumed the country.

The rise of Gregory, who is also the first American named to the College of Cardinals since 2016, comes as debates over how to address the legacy of slavery and racism have extended to the Catholic church, which for centuries excluded African Americans from positions of power.

Gregory, 72, was one of 13 new cardinal appointments around the world that Francis announced Sunday. A Chicago native, he served for years as the archbishop of Atlanta until last year, when the pontiff made him the first African American archbishop of Washington. He is also a former president of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, whose vision is considered in line with Francis’ pastoral and welcoming approach in the church.

Only about 250 of the estimated 37,000 Catholic priests in the United States are African American, according to the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Only one other diocese beyond the Archdiocese of Washington is currently led by an African American: Bishop Shelton Fabre of Houma-Thibodaux in Louisiana.

Gregory’s leadership in Washington was a turning point for a pivotal diocese previously led by Theodore McCarrick and Donald Wuerl, two prelates tarnished by the church sexual abuse crisis. Last year, Francis stripped McCarrick first of his title as cardinal and then of his status as priest after accusations of sexual abuse against him that the church deemed credible. Wuerl left the position under a cloud of controversy amid accusations that he had failed to prevent abuse decades earlier in his diocese in Pittsburgh.

The ceremony to install the new cardinals is set for Nov. 28 in Rome. The Vatican offered no details about how it would conduct the consistory, an ornate ceremony in which the pope physically puts red hats onto the heads of the new cardinals, given concerns over the coronavirus and new restrictions announced in Italy on Sunday.

<Pickup Vocabs 1>
Cardinal 枢機卿(ローマ教皇の最高顧問)
☝️枢機卿の法衣と帽子の深紅から
色の名前、鳥の名前にもなっている
☝️St.Louis Cardinals(MLBの野球チーム)
archbishop 大司教
☝️arch(長)+bishop(司教)
elevating 昇進させる
[語源: elevate(持ち上げる)]
groundbreaking パイオニア的な、画期的な
[語源: (未開の固い)土を(鋤で)耕す]
consumed 心をいっぱいにする
[語源: 再生不可能なまでに分解して破壊する
→ 消費する、食べる、心に食い入る]
legacy 遺産
☝️財産に限らず、伝統など継承される特質
☝️今回は「負の遺産」を指す
pontiff ローマ教皇
☝️10/6 pontificate(教皇の職)
in line with 一致している
☝️同じ方向を向いている、意見や考え方が一致しているという意味
pastoral 牧歌的な
[語源: pastor(羊飼い)→牧師]
<Pickup Vocabs 2>
diocese 司教の教区
pivotal 重要な
[語源: pivot(枢軸)、転機となる重要な点]
prelates 高位聖職者
tarnished (名誉などを)汚す
☝️(銀などを)曇らせる、錆びさせるという意味も
stripped 剥奪した
☝️strip(脱ぐ/脱がす)は衣服以外にも使える
deemed 思った
[語源: deem(判断を下す)
→同じ「思う」でもthinkよりjudgeが近い]
consistory 枢機卿会議
ornate 華麗な
[親戚: ornament(オーナメント)]
physically 物理的に
☝️フィジカルが強い⚽️(和製英語)
→physicalは基本的に形容詞なので注意
Physically strong
has great physical strengthとなる

10/28(水)の放送

Japan’s New Leader Sets Ambitious Goal of Carbon Neutrality by 2050 

著者:Ben Dooley, Makiko Inoue and Hikari Hida
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

TOKYO — Japan will be carbon neutral by 2050, its prime minister said Monday, making an ambitious pledge to sharply accelerate the country’s global warming targets, even as it plans to build more than a dozen coal-burning power plants in the coming years.

Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga laid out the goal during his first major policy speech since taking office in September, when Japan’s longest-serving leader, Shinzo Abe, abruptly resigned.

Addressing Japan’s parliament, Suga called for the country to “be carbon neutral in 2050,” a declaration that drew loud applause from lawmakers. Achieving that goal will be good not only for the world, he said, but also for Japan’s economy and global standing.

“Taking an aggressive approach to global warming will bring about a transformation in our industrial structure and economic system that will lead to big growth” in the economy, he said, answering critics who have warned of the economic consequences.

Japan now joins China, the largest polluter, and the European Union in promising to bring their net carbon emissions down to zero. China’s leader, Xi Jinping, made his country’s pledge last month during the U.N. General Assembly.

The two announcements from Asia’s largest economies reinforced just how much of an outlier the United States, the world’s second-largest carbon emitter, has become after President Donald Trump moved in 2017 to pull the country out of the Paris Agreement. Joe Biden, his challenger in the presidential election, has vowed to restore the United States’ participation in the accord.

It is not clear whether Suga’s commitment is feasible, and he offered few specifics about how Japan would reach its goal, saying only that he would harness the power of “innovation” and “regulatory reform” to transform the country’s energy production and usage.

Achieving the new timeline will require a major overhaul of Japan’s infrastructure, which is highly dependent on carbon dioxide-producing fossil fuels. The country has made steady progress in reducing its emissions but still generated 1.06 billion tons of the gas in the one-year period that ended in March 2019, placing it among the top 10 per capita emitters.

ambitious 意欲的、野心的
lay out 〜を示す
abruptly 突然に、急に
parliament 国会、議会
declaration 宣言
emission 排出、放出
outlier 異常値、外れ値
accord 協定
harness 利用する、役立てる
overhaul 徹底的に見直す

10/29(木)の放送

There’s Water Ice on the Moon, and in More Places Than NASA Once Thought

著者:Kenneth Chang
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

Future astronauts headed to the moon may have an easier time finding water and digging up ice than had been thought.

In a paper published in Monday’s Nature Astronomy, a team of scientists used SOFIA, an infrared telescope mounted inside a 747 jumbo jet, to make observations that showed unambiguous evidence of water on parts of the moon where the sun shines.

“This discovery reveals that water might be distributed across the lunar surface and not limited to the cold shadowed places near the lunar poles,” Paul Hertz, the director of NASA’s astrophysics division, said during a news conference on Monday.

Although that water could be difficult to collect by astronauts, another group of researchers on Monday that in addition to big, frigid, deep and potentially treacherous craters in the moon’s polar regions, smaller and shallower depressions in the same areas may also be cold enough to hold onto water ice for millions, if not billions, of years.

These small water ice deposits could be a “real game changer,” Paul O. Hayne, a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences at the University of Colorado, who led that research, said in an interview. “It could make it much more accessible to future astronauts and rover missions.”

The moon’s South Pole has become a desired destination for a number of robotic missions by NASA, China and other space programs.

Such ice might not only provide water for future astronauts to drink, but water molecules can also be broken apart into their constituent hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The oxygen would give the astronauts something to breathe. Hydrogen and oxygen can also be used as rocket propellant for trips home to Earth or even some day to Mars and beyond.

“Anytime we don’t need to pack water for our trip, we have an opportunity to take other useful items with us,” said Jacob Bleacher, chief exploration scientist for the NASA’s human exploration and operations directorate.

dig up 掘り出す、掘り起こす
infrared 赤外線の
unambiguous 不明瞭な所のない、明快な
treacherous 危険な、油断できない
depression くぼみ、くぼ地
deposit 堆積物
accessible アクセスしやすい
rover 惑星探査車
molecule 分子
constituent (物を基本的成分として)構成する

10/30(金)の放送

The 2020 Campaign Is the Most Expensive Ever (By a Lot)

著者:Shane Goldmacher
(c) 2020 The New York Times Company

The 2020 election has blown past previous records to become the most expensive campaign in U.S. history, with the final tally for the battle for the White House and control of the Senate and the House expected to hit nearly $14 billion, according to new projections made by the Center for Responsive Politics.

That is double the previous high for federal races set just four years ago.

The biggest driver of political spending this year has been — no surprise — the presidential race, as enormous sums have, in particular, poured into supporting Joe Biden’s bid to oust President Donald Trump. Their contest alone is projected to cost $6.6 billion — more than was spent on the White House race and every congressional campaign combined in 2016.

The surge of spending is powered by donations at both ends of the giving spectrum as small donors, particularly online, are playing an increasingly central role in funding campaigns. At the same time, billionaires and multimillionaires are writing enormous checks to super PACs.

Much of the spending has gone into television ads: $1.8 billion worth of presidential race ads just this year, according to ad-tracking firm Advertising Analytics. The total cost of the 2016 presidential campaign, even including the primaries, was $2.4 billion.

Biden’s campaign committee, which had raised $938 million as of Oct. 14, is on track to be the first to surpass $1 billion in fundraising. The fundraising hauls by Biden and Trump, when combined with party money, already far exceed that threshold.

But it’s not just the presidential race sending costs to new heights.

Eight of the 10 most expensive Senate races ever are unfolding in 2020, including in North Carolina, where the total spent between the two candidates, Sen. Thom Tillis, the Republican incumbent, and Cal Cunningham, the Democratic challenger, has already passed $272 million.

That is one of four Senate races to have crossed the $200 million mark this year — the others are in Iowa, South Carolina and Arizona — something that had never before happened in a contest without a self-funding candidate.

In South Carolina, Jaime Harrison, the Democratic challenger to Sen. Lindsey Graham, the Republican incumbent, shattered fundraising records in the third quarter, when he raised more than $57 million, and he is the first Senate candidate to ever raise $100 million from others.

blow past 吹き飛ばす/(余裕で)追い越す
tally  集計/(競技の)得点
☝️こちらは名詞として使われています!10/19の放送でわかった通り、動詞として使うこともできます
driver  要因/動因
oust  追放する/追い落とす
contest  競技/争い
super PAC  スーパーPAC(特別政治行動委員会)
☝️ PAC = Political Action Committee
threshold (8/18の復習)閾値/水際
haul  (大きな)もうけ/獲物
incumbent  (8/1の復習)現職の/在職の
shatter records  記録を打ち砕く/大差で記録を更新する

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山本 あづさ
Voicyリリース当初、パーソナリティとしてVoicyに参加。2018年4月より社員としてジョイン。ナレーターとして活動するプレーヤーでありながら、Voicyではコンテンツ・ディレクターとして番組作りに挑戦しつつ、2019年より広報も兼務しています。
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